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ANDRITZ HYDRO Kaplan turbine for HPP Rock Island, USA
Ze Fernando, Brazil ANDRITZ HYDRO Kaplan turbine on installationANDRITZ HYDRO Kaplan turbine for HPP Schaffhausen, Siwtzerland

Kaplan turbines

The solution for low head and medium output

ANDRITZ HYDRO has installed about 3,200 Kaplan units worldwide with a total installed capacity of approximately 50,000 MW.

In the beginning of the 20th century (1913) the Austrian Professor Viktor Kaplan invented a new turbine type forming the basis of a new turbine technology. Today it is considered a classic.

The ANDRITZ HYDRO Kaplan turbine is utilized on a low head application with up to 90 m and a unit output of up to more than 230 MW. The degree of efficiency is very high with more than 95 %.

The Kaplan turbine is a propeller type water turbine with 4 to 7 adjustable blades. It is an outward reaction turbine, resulting in a changed water pressure as the water moves through the turbine and gives up its energy.

The runner consists of the stainless steel runner blades mounted on the runner hub and the runner cap at the lower side of the hub, enhancing the optimized hydraulic shape. ANDRITZ HYDRO has experience with runner diameters up to 10,000 mm. The runner blades are moveable, allowing to adjust the water discharge and turbine output. Due to these moveable blades, the Kaplan turbines show a high efficiency level. In some applications, where a more or less constant water flow can be guaranteed, the Kaplan turbine can be designed with fixed runner blades.

The ANDRITZ HYDRO Kaplan turbine is often used for run-of-river projects, thus recent design development has been geared towards environmental topics – e.g. the oil-free hub, where the runner hub oil is replaced by water.

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